But ______� pts. out of� 80 pts.� = _________ % = ����������������������������������� Name:

 

Advanced Chemistry:� Test #3 (Atomic Theory & Periodic Trends)

 

Multiple Choice:� On the answer sheet darken the letter corresponding to the best answer.� (1 pt. each)

 

1.���� According to the Aufbau order, which of the following has a half-filled subshell?�

���

�a.� Ca�

�b.� Si��

�c.� S�

�d.� Sb�

�e.� Fe�

2.���� Which of the following statements is true?�

��

�a.� The frequency of green light is higher than blue light, and the wavelength of green light is higher than blue light.�

�b. The frequency of green light is higher than blue light, and the wavelength of green light is lower than blue light.�

�c. The speed of green light is higher than blue light, and the frequency of green light is lower than blue light.�

�d. The frequency of green light is lower than blue light, and the wavelength of green light is lower than blue light.�

�e. The frequency of green light is lower than blue light, and the wavelength of green light is higher than blue light.�

��

�3.��� As the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation increases:�

���

�a.� its energy increases��

�b.� its frequency increases��

�c.� its speed must increase��

�d.� more than one of the above are true���

�e.� none of the above is true�

�� �

4.���� An orbital is a region around the nucleus:�

���

�a.� where an electron is always found���

�b.� that defines the exact path of an electron���

�c.� where there is a high probability of finding an electron��

�d.� that defines the average distance of an electron from the nucleus��

�e.� that can contain one or more subshells of electrons�

��

5.���� In comparing the radii of an antimony (Sb) atom and a tellurium (Te) atom (atomic numbers 51 & 52):�

���

�a.� Te has a larger radius because it has more electrons.���

�b.� Sb has a larger radius because it has fewer protons, so the outer shell isn’t pulled in as tightly.�

�c.� Sb has a smaller radius because it is has a half-filled p subshell.���

�d.� they both have about the same radius because they are both metalloids.�

�e.� they both have about the same radius because of� the shielding effect.�

 

 

 

 

6.���� In comparing the first ionization energy (IE1) of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg):�

���

�a.� Ca has a higher IE1 because its radius is smaller.���

�b.� Mg has a higher IE1 because its radius is smaller.���

�c.� Ca has a higher IE1 because its s subshell is full.���

�d.� Mg has a higher IE1 because its s subshell is full.���

�e.� they both have about the same IE1 because they have the same number of electrons in their outer shells.��

 

7.���� In comparing the radii of a nitrogen (N) atom and phosphorus (P) atom:�

���

�a.� Phosphorus has a larger radius because it has more electrons.���

�b.� Nitrogen has a larger radius because it has fewer protons, so the outer shell isn’t pulled in as tightly.�

�c.� Phosphorus has a larger radius because it needs an additional electron shell to accommodate its electrons.�

�d.� Nitrogen has a larger radius because it has a half-filled p subshell.�

�e.� they both have about the same radius because of� the shielding effect.�

�8.��� In comparing the first ionization energy (IE1) of beryllium (Be) and boron (B):�

���

�a.� Be has a higher IE1 because its radius is smaller.��

�b.� B has a higher IE1 because its radius is smaller.���

�c.� Be has a higher IE1 because its s subshell is full.��

�d.� B has a higher IE1 because its s subshell is full.���

�e.� They both have about the same IE1 because B only has one more electron than Be.�

 

9.���� In comparing the radii of a titanium (Ti) atom and a chromium (Cr) atom:�

���

�a.� Cr has a larger radius because it has more electrons.���

�b.� Ti has a larger radius because it has fewer protons, so the outer shell isn’t pulled in as tightly.�

�c.� Cr has a larger radius because it needs an additional electron shell to accommodate its electrons.�

�d.� Ti has a larger radius because it has an extra energy level in its electron configuration.�

�e.� They both have about the same radius because of the shielding effect.�

10.�� Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are chemically very similar because:�

���

�a.� they have about the same atomic radius���

�b.� they have about the same ionization energy���

�c.� they have about the same electron affinity���

�d.� they have the same number of electrons in their outer shells���

�e.� they are both solids at room temperature����

 

11.�� In comparing the electron affinity (EA) of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N):���

�a.� phosphorus has a higher EA because its radius is smaller.���

�b.� nitrogen has a higher EA because its radius is smaller.���

�c.� phosphorus has a higher EA because its p subshell is half full.���

�d.� nitrogen has a higher EA because its p subshell is half full.���

�e.� They both have about the same EA because they have the same number of electrons in their outer shells.��

 

 

 

 

 

��

12.�� In comparing the radii of a chromium (Cr) atom and a Molybdenum (Mo) atom:�

���

�a.� Mo has a larger radius because it has more electrons.���

�b.� Cr has a larger radius because it has fewer protons, so the outer shell isn’t pulled in as tightly.�

�c.� Mo has a larger radius because it needs an additional electron shell to accommodate its electrons.�

�d.� Cr has a larger radius because it has a half-filled d subshell.�

�e.� They both have about the same radius because of the shielding effect.�

��

13.�� In comparing the electron affinity (EA) of sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P):�

�a.� S has a higher EA because its radius is smaller.���

�b.� P has a higher EA because its radius is smaller.� �

�c.� S has a higher EA because its p subshell is half full.���

�d.� P has a higher EA because its p subshell is half full.��

�e.� They both have about the same EA because they are right next to each other in the periodic table.�

 

14.�� In comparing the nonmetallic activity of sulphur (S) and selenium (Se):�

�a.� Sulphur is more active because it has a lower electron affinity.���

�b.� Selenium is more active because it has a lower electron affinity.���

�c.� Sulphur is more active because it has a higher electron affinity.��

�d.� Selenium is more active because it has a higher electron affinity.��

�e.� They both have about the same activity, because they both have the same number of valence electrons.�

��

�15.� In comparing the metallic activity of calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr):���

�a.� Ca is more active because it has a higher ionization energy.�

�b.� Sr is more active because it has a higher ionization energy.��

�c.� Ca is more active because it has a lower ionization energy.��

�d.� Sr is more active because it has a lower ionization energy.���

�e.� They both have about the same activity, because they have the same number of valence electrons.��

 

16.�� Nonmetals can be described as follows:�

���

�a.� brittle, good conductors of heat and electricity, gain electrons easily��

�b.� brittle, good conductors of heat and electricity, lose electrons easily���

�c.� brittle, poor conductors of heat and electricity, lose electrons easily���

�d.� brittle, good conductors of heat and electricity, gain electrons easily���

  1. brittle, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gain electrons easily

 

17.�� Which of the following statements is true regarding typical potassium ions when compared to potassium atoms (K) and argon atoms (Ar)?

 

�a.� Potassium ions have a larger radius than either K or Ar atoms.���

�b.� Potassium ions have a larger radius than K atoms, but a smaller radius than Ar atoms.���

�c.� Potassium ions have a smaller radius than either K or Ar atoms.���

�d.� Potassium ions have a smaller radius than K atoms, but a larger radius than Ar atoms.���

�e.� Potassium ions are about the same size as K atoms, but are larger than Ar atoms.�

��

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding sulphide ions when compared to sulphur atoms (S) and argon atoms (Ar)?�

 

�a.� Sulphide ions have a larger radius than either S or Ar atoms.���

�b.� Sulphide ions have a larger radius than S atoms, but a smaller radius than Ar.���

�c.� Sulphide ions have a smaller radius than either S or Ar atoms. ���

�d.� Sulphide ions have a smaller radius than S atoms, but a larger radius than Ar.���

�e.� Sulphide ions have about the same radius as S atoms, but are larger than Ar atoms.�

��

19.�� Which of the following tend to have more than one oxidation number:�

���

�a.� alkali metals���

�b.� alkaline earth metals���

�c.� noble gases���

�d.� outer transition metals���

�e.� none of the above; all of the above have only one oxidation number�

 

 

20.�� Which of the following is not a typical property of metals?�

���

�a.� good electrical conductivity���

�b.� good conductor of heat���

�c.� malleable (easily shaped)���

�d.� gain electrons easily���

�e.� all of the above are properties of metals�

��

21.�� What type of neutral atom has seven electrons in its outer shell?�

�a.� alkali metal��

�b.� halogen���

�c.� noble gas�

�d.� rare earth element���

�e.� alkaline earth element�

��

�22.� What type of neutral atom has two electrons in its outer shell?�

���

�a.� alkali metal���

�b.� halogen���

�c.� noble gas���

�d.� alkaline earth element���

�e.� none of the above�

 

23.�� What type of neutral atom has eight electrons in its outer shell?�

���

�a.� alkali metal���

�b.� halogen���

�c.� noble gas���

�d.� rare earth element���

�e.� alkaline earth element�

 

��

 

 

24.�� What type of neutral atom has one electron in its outer shell?�

�a.� alkali metal���

�b.� halogen���

�c.� noble gas���

�d.� rare earth element���

�e.� alkaline earth element�

25.�� What type of neutral atom has eight electrons in an f subshell?�

���

�a.� alkali metal���

�b.� halogen���

�c.� noble gas���

�d.� rare earth element���

�e.� alkaline earth element�

��

26.�� The way in which an atom reacts chemically is determined by:�

���

�a.� the number of neutrons���

�b.� the number of electrons in its outer shell���

�c.� the number of electrons in the lowest energy level�

�d.� the average atomic mass numbers of its isotopes���

�e.� the arrangement of its protons�

 

 

For each of the following, write the symbol for an element that has the electron configuration described:

 

  1. The outer shell of a neutral atom consists of 2 electrons in an s subshell.� The next shell in from the outer shell consists of 2 electrons in an s subshell, 6 electrons in a p subshell, and 8 electrons in a d subshell.� This could be an atom of:� (1 pt.)

 

 

  1. The outer shell of a neutral atom consists of 2 electrons in an s subshell.� The next shell in from the outer shell consists of 2 electrons in an s subshell and 6 electrons in a p subshell.� This could be an atom of:��� (1 pt.)

 

��

  1. The outer shell of a neutral atom consists of 2 electrons in an s subshell and 6 electrons in a p subshell.� The next shell in from the outer shell consists of 2 electrons in an s subshell, 6 electrons in a p subshell, and 10 electrons in a d subshell.� This could be an atom of:��� (1 pt.)

 

Short Answer / Fill in the Blank:� (1 pt. each)

 

30.�� How many valence electrons does tellurium (Te) have?� ____

31.�� How many valence electrons does vanadium (V) have?� ____

32.�� How many different sublevels are theoretically possible in the sixth energy level?� ____

33.�� The 5p sublevel may contain up to how many electrons?� ____

34.�� The number of electrons that can exist in the same orbital of the 4f sublevel is:� ____

35.�� The number of orbitals theoretically possible in the third energy level is:� ____

36.�� How many electrons are in the outer energy level of an atom of germanium (Ge)?� ____

37.�� What element has the following electron configuration?� 1s22s22p63s23p5�� ______

38.�� How many electrons are represented by the following electron configuration?� [Ar]4s23d8�� ____

 

39.�� Write the symbol for an element that has no known compounds.� _____

���

  1. Write the symbol for any rare earth element: _____

 

  1. Write the symbol for any halogen: _____

 

  1. Write the symbol for any alkaline earth element: _____

 

  1. Write the symbol for an element that has three electrons in a d subshell: _____

 

  1. Write the symbol for an element that has one electron in a p subshell: _____

 

  1. Write the symbol for an element that tends to form ions with a +4 charge: ____

 

  1. Write the symbol for an element that has a half-filled s subshell:� _____

 

  1. How many electrons in an atom can have a principal quantum number of 3 and a secondary quantum number of 2?� ____

 

  1. How many electrons in an atom can have a principal quantum number of 4 and a magnetic quantum number of 2?� ____

 

  1. How many electrons in an atom can have a principal quantum number of 2 and a secondary quantum number of 2?� ____

 

  1. How many electrons in an atom can have a principal quantum number of 4 and a spin quantum number of +� ? ____

 

51.�� Write the symbols of the following elements in order of increasing nonmetallic activity (lowest to highest):

� S, Se, Cl, As�� (2 pts.)

 

 

  1. Write the symbols of the following elements in order of increasing metallic activity (lowest to highest):

� Fe, Rb, Ca, Cu��� (2 pts.)

 

 

  1. Draw a p orbital.� (1 pt.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Of the elements K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Se, Br, Te, and I:�� (1 pt. each)

 

  1. Which has the smallest atomic radius?� _____

 

  1. Which has the largest atomic radius?� _____

 

  1. Which has the smallest ionic radius?� _____

 

  1. Which has the largest ionic radius?� _____

 

  1. Which has the smallest ionization energy?� _____

 

  1. Which has the largest ionization energy?� _____

 

  1. Which has the smallest electron affinity?� _____

 

  1. Which has the largest electron affinity?� _____

 

  1. Which has the smallest second ionization energy?� _____

 

  1. Which has the largest second ionization energy?� _____

 

 

Short Essay:

 

  1. Copper only has one electron in its 4s subshell whereas the Aufbau order would predict that it should have two electrons in that subshell.� Explain why this occurs.� (2 pts.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

65.�� Explain why, when electrical energy is passed through hydrogen gas, visible light is given off.�� (3 pts.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66.�� How would you describe what an orbital is?� (2 pts.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

67.�� Draw the electron configuration for seaborgium (atomic number 106) using the arrow notation.��� (5 pts.)

 

68.�� On the diagram that you have drawn, circle the electron that has the following four quantum numbers:

� (5, 3, 1, �)� (1 pt.)

 

69.�� Write the core notation for the electron configuration for seaborgium (atomic number 106).� (2 pts.)